CompTIA Security Plus Mock Test Q540

At the outside break area, an employee, Ann, asked another employee to let her into the building because her badge is missing. Which of the following does this describe?

A. Shoulder surfing
B. Tailgating
C. Whaling
D. Impersonation

Correct Answer: B
Section: Threats and Vulnerabilities

Explanation:
Although Ann is an employee and therefore authorized to enter the building, she does not have her badge and therefore strictly she should not be allowed to enter the building. Just as a driver can tailgate another driver’s car by following too closely, in the security sense, tailgating means to compromise physical security by following somebody through a door meant to keep out intruders. Tailgating is actually a form of social engineering, whereby someone who is not authorized to enter a particular area does so by following closely behind someone who is authorized.

Incorrect Answers:
A: Shoulder surfing is using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone’s shoulder, to get information. Shoulder surfing is an effective way to get information in crowded places because it’s relatively easy to stand next to someone and watch as they fill out a form, enter a PIN number at an ATM machine, or use a calling card at a public pay phone. Shoulder surfing can also be done long distance with the aid of binoculars or other vision-enhancing devices. To prevent shoulder surfing, experts recommend that you shield paperwork or your keypad from view by using your body or cupping your hand. Incinerating documents will not prevent shoulder surfing. Ann is not trying to view sensitive information. Therefore this answer is incorrect.
C: Whaling is a specific kind of malicious hacking within the more general category of phishing, which involves hunting for data that can be used by the hacker. In general, phishing efforts are focused on collecting personal data about users. In whaling, the targets are high-ranking bankers, executives or others in powerful positions or job titles. Hackers who engage in whaling often describe these efforts as “reeling in a big fish,” applying a familiar metaphor to the process of scouring technologies for loopholes and opportunities for data theft. Those who are engaged in whaling may, for example, hack into specific networks where these powerful individuals work or store sensitive data. They may also set up keylogging or other malware on a work station associated with one of these executives. There are many ways that hackers can pursue whaling, leading C-level or top-level executives in business and government to stay vigilant about the possibility of cyber threats. There is no malicious intent by Ann entering the building. Therefore this answer is incorrect.
D: Impersonation is where a person, computer, software application or service pretends to be someone it’s not. Impersonation is commonly non-maliciously used in client/server applications. However, it can also be used as a security threat. Ann is not trying to ‘impersonate’ someone else. Therefore this answer is incorrect.

References:
http://www.yourdictionary.com/tailgating http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/shoulder-surfing http://www.techopedia.com/definition/28643/whaling