Which of the following is BEST utilized to identify common misconfigurations throughout the enterprise?
A. Vulnerability scanning
B. Port scanning
C. Penetration testing
D. Black box
Correct Answer: A
Section: Threats and Vulnerabilities
A vulnerability scan is the process of scanning the network and/or I.T. infrastructure for threats and vulnerabilities. The threats and vulnerabilities are then evaluated in a risk
assessment and the necessary actions taken to resolve and vulnerabilities. A vulnerability scan scans for known weaknesses such as missing patches or security updates.
A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be
exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security breaches by threat
agents, such as malicious hackers.
Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report of
the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network’s security.
B: A port scanner is typically a software application used to scan a system such as a computer or firewall for open ports. A malicious user would attempt to access a system through an
open port. A security administrator would compare the list of open ports against a list of ports that need to be open so that unnecessary ports can be closed thus reducing the
vulnerability of the system. A port scanner is not used for a general scan of common misconfigurations on multiple systems.
C: Penetration testing (also called pen testing) is the practice of testing a computer system, network or Web application to find vulnerabilities that an attacker could exploit.
Pen tests can be automated with software applications or they can be performed manually. Either way, the process includes gathering information about the target before the test
(reconnaissance), identifying possible entry points, attempting to break in (either virtually or for real) and reporting back the findings.
The main objective of penetration testing is to determine security weaknesses. A pen test can also be used to test an organization’s security policy compliance, its employees’ security
awareness and the organization’s ability to identify and respond to security incidents.
Penetration testing is used to test the security controls on an individual system; it is not used for a general scan of common misconfigurations on multiple systems.
D: Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings. This method of test can be
applied to virtually every level of software testing: unit, integration, system and acceptance. It typically comprises most if not all higher level testing, but can also dominate unit testing
as well. Black-box testing is used for testing applications. It is not used to common misconfigurations in a network.