An IT auditor tests an application as an authenticated user. This is an example of which of the following types of testing?
B. White box
C. Black box
D. Gray box
Correct Answer: D
Section: Threats and Vulnerabilities
In this question, the tester is testing the application as an authenticated user. We can assume from this that the tester has at least limited knowledge of the application. This meets the
criteria of a grey-box test.
Gray box testing, also called gray box analysis, is a strategy for software debugging in which the tester has limited knowledge of the internal details of the program. A gray box is a
device, program or system whose workings are partially understood.
Gray box testing can be contrasted with black box testing, a scenario in which the tester has no knowledge or access to the internal workings of a program, or white box testing, a
scenario in which the internal particulars are fully known. Gray box testing is commonly used in penetration tests.
Gray box testing is considered to be non-intrusive and unbiased because it does not require that the tester have access to the source code. With respect to internal processes, gray
box testing treats a program as a black box that must be analyzed from the outside. During a gray box test, the person may know how the system components interact but not have
detailed knowledge about internal program functions and operation. A clear distinction exists between the developer and the tester, thereby minimizing the risk of personnel conflicts.
A: Penetration testing (also called pen testing) is the practice of testing a computer system, network or Web application to find vulnerabilities that an attacker could exploit.
Pen tests can be automated with software applications or they can be performed manually. Either way, the process includes gathering information about the target before the test
(reconnaissance), identifying possible entry points, attempting to break in (either virtually or for real) and reporting back the findings.
The main objective of penetration testing is to determine security weaknesses. A pen test can also be used to test an organization’s security policy compliance, its employees’ security
awareness and the organization’s ability to identify and respond to security incidents.
Penetration tests are used to test the security controls of a system or application. They are not used specifically for general application testing.
B: White-box testing (also known as clear box testing, glass box testing, transparent box testing, and structural testing) is a method of testing software that tests internal structures or
workings of an application, as opposed to its functionality (i.e. black-box testing). In white-box testing an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to
design test cases. The tester chooses inputs to exercise paths through the code and determine the appropriate outputs. This is analogous to testing nodes in a circuit, e.g. in-circuit
White-box testing can be applied at the unit, integration and system levels of the software testing process. Although traditional testers tended to think of white-box testing as being
done at the unit level, it is used for integration and system testing more frequently today. It can test paths within a unit, paths between units during integration, and between subsystems
during a system–level test.
In this question, the tester has some knowledge of the application but not the detailed knowledge required for a white-box test.
C: Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings. This method of test can be
applied to virtually every level of software testing: unit, integration, system and acceptance. It typically comprises most if not all higher level testing, but can also dominate unit testing
Specific knowledge of the application’s code/internal structure and programming knowledge in general is not required. The tester is aware of what the software is supposed to do but is
not aware of how it does it. For instance, the tester is aware that a particular input returns a certain, invariable output but is not aware of how the software produces the output in the
In this question, the tester has some knowledge of the application.