Which of the following attacks impact the availability of a system? (Select TWO).
Correct Answer: A,D
Section: Threats and Vulnerabilities
A smurf attack is a type of network security breach in which a network connected to the Internet is swamped with replies to ICMP echo (PING) requests. A smurf attacker sends PING
requests to an Internet broadcast address. These are special addresses that broadcast all received messages to the hosts connected to the subnet. Each broadcast address can
support up to 255 hosts, so a single PING request can be multiplied 255 times. The return address of the request itself is spoofed to be the address of the attacker’s victim. All the
hosts receiving the PING request reply to this victim’s address instead of the real sender’s address. A single attacker sending hundreds or thousands of these PING messages per
second can fill the victim’s T-1 (or even T-3) line with ping replies, bring the entire Internet service to its knees.
Smurfing falls under the general category of Denial of Service attacks — security attacks that don’t try to steal information, but instead attempt to disable a computer or network.
A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is an attack from several different computers targeting a single computer.
One common method of attack involves saturating the target machine with external communications requests, so much so that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic, or responds so
slowly as to be rendered essentially unavailable. Such attacks usually lead to a server overload.
A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers. Such an attack is
often the result of multiple compromised systems (for example a botnet) flooding the targeted system with traffic. When a server is overloaded with connections, new connections can
no longer be accepted. The major advantages to an attacker of using a distributed denial-of-service attack are that multiple machines can generate more attack traffic than one
machine, multiple attack machines are harder to turn off than one attack machine, and that the behavior of each attack machine can be stealthier, making it harder to track and shut
down. These attacker advantages cause challenges for defense mechanisms. For example, merely purchasing more incoming bandwidth than the current volume of the attack might
not help, because the attacker might be able to simply add more attack machines. This after all will end up completely crashing a website for periods of time.
B: Phishing is the act of sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that
will be used for identity theft. Phishing does not impact the availability of a system.
C: SPIM is a term sometimes used to refer to spam over IM (Instant Messaging). It consists of unwanted messages transmitted through some form of instant messaging service. SPIM
does not impact the availability of a system.
E: There are several kinds of spoofing including email, caller ID, MAC address, and uniform resource locator (URL) spoof attacks. All types of spoofing are designed to imitate
something or someone. Spoofing does not impact the availability of a system.